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Edexcel IGCSE Biology Topic 5 - Variation And Selection

 Below is everything the examiners think you know, if you're not sure of something click on the link to watch my YouTube video explanation. For a copy of these you can print off, get the FREE revision guide I wrote for you.

 • I can state that the nucleus of a cell contains DNA

 • I can describe the structure of DNA

 • I can use the terms double helix, adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G) when describing DNA

 • I can describe the structure of DNA including the nucleotide, sugar and phosphate groups

 • I can state that in RNA uracil replaces thymine

 • I can describe protein synthesis

 • I can define the word allele

 • I can state that human body cells contain 46 chromosomes and human gametes contain 23 chromosomes

 • I can describe mutations and the cause of mutations

 • I can describe how change in DNA can alter the amino acids and the proteins produced

 • I can state that most mutations have no effect on phenotype, but can rarely have a significant request

 • I can state that the occurrence of mutations increase with more exposure to ionising radiation

 • I can describe the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction

 • I can describe the differences in the end result of mitosis and meiosis

 • I can describe the process of meiosis

 • I can describe how random fertilisation produces genetic variation

 • I can state that variation within a species can be genetic, environmental, or a combination of both

 • I can define the terms: dominant, recessive, homozygous,

 • heterozygous, phenotype, and genotype

 • I can define the term codominance

 • I can describe that most phenotypic features are the result of polygenic inheritance rather than single genes

 • I can predict the results of a genetic cross (monohybrid inheritance) by completing a Punnett square diagram

 • I can interpret family pedigrees

 • I can give results of a Punnett square or family pedigree as a ratio, fraction, probability or percentage

 • I know that girls are depicted as having XX chromosomes and boys have XY chromosomes

 • I can draw a Punnett square for XX and XY to decide the gender of offspring

 • I can do an XX and XY Punnett square showing the inheritance of gender-based genetic diseases

 • I can define evolution 

 • I can explain the theory of evolution by natural selection

 • I can explain how antibiotic resistance comes about

 • I can describe how selective breeding can give us plants with desirable characteristics

 • I can describe how selective breeding can give us animals with desirable characteristics

 • I can describe micropropagation

 • I can describe commercial uses of micropropagation

 • I can describe how a cloned animal is produced 

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