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Edexcel IGCSE Biology Topic 2 - Animal Physiology




Below is everything the examiners think you know, if you're not sure of something click on the link to watch my YouTube video explanation. For a copy of these you can print off, get the FREE revision guide I wrote for you.


 • I can describe the structure and function of the lungs

 • I can describe the roles of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in breathing

 • I can explain how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange

 • I can describe the effects of smoking on the lungs and the circulatory system

 • I can describe how smoking causes coronary heart disease

 • I can describe an investigation into breathing in humans, including the release of carbon dioxide and the effect of exercise

 • I can identify the elements present in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (fats and oils)

 • I can describe the structure of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

 • I can describe the food tests for starch, glucose, protein and fat

 • I can describe the role of enzymes in the body

 • I can state and describe the components of a balanced diet

 • I can describe the functions of vitamins A, C and D and the mineral ions calcium and iron

 • I can describe the functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and water in a healthy diet.

 • I can describe how energy level requirements vary with age, activity levels and pregnancy

 • I can describe how the digestive system works

 • I can define and describe peristalsis

 • I can describe the roles of amylase and maltase

 • I can describe the roles of proteases

 • I can describe the roles of lipases

 • I can describe the role of bile, where it is produced and where it is stored

 • I can state that bile emulsifies fats and neutralises stomach acid

 • I can describe how the small intestine is adapted for absorption

 • I can describe the structure of the villus

 • I can describe an investigation into the energy content of food samples

 • I can explain that single celled organisms rely on diffusion for transport in and out of the cell.

 • I can explain why multicellular organisms need transport systems

 • I can state the components of the circulatory system of the body

 • I can describe the structure and function of the heart

 • I can explain how the heart rate changes during exercise

 • I can explain how adrenaline affects the body

 • I can explain how factors may increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease

 • I can describe the impact cardiovascular disease can have on a person life

 • I can describe the different treatments for cardiovascular disease.

 • I can describe the causes of cardiovascular disease

 • I can describe the structure and function of the different types of the blood vessel. Aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, coronary arteries, and capillaries.

 • I can describe the parts that make up blood and the function of each of these parts

 • I can explain how different blood cells are adapted to suit a particular function

 • I can recognise a diagram of the different blood cells

 • I can state the role that plasma plays in the transport of carbon dioxide, digested food, urea, hormones and heat energy

 • I can describe the way that the immune system responds to disease using phagocytes and lymphocytes)

 • I can describe how vaccinations create memory cells and how this leads to antibodies

 • I can describe the role of platelets in the body

 • I can describe how organism respond to changes in their environment

 • I can describe a ‘coordinated response’ as the reflex arc, needing an effector, a receptor and a stimulus

 • I can compare hormonal responses to nervous system responses and describe the differences between the two

 • I can describe the structure of the nervous system

 • I can describe how the nervous system works in reacting to surroundings and coordinating behaviour

 • I can describe the path a signal takes along the receptor via the CNS using the example of a finger and a hot object

 • I can explain a reflex arc

 • I can state that the central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord

 • I can describe that nervous impulses are electrical impulses

 • I can describe the role of neurotransmitters

 • I can describe the structure of the eye

 • I can explain the function of the different parts of the eye

 • I can describe what happens to the eye when it focuses on near or far objects

 • I can describe what happens to the iris when the light dims or brightens

 • I can describe where these hormones are made, what they do and where they work: insulin, adrenalin oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone

 • I can describe where these hormones are made, what they do and where they work: ADH, FSH and LH

 • I can define the term homeostasis

 • I can explain the need for homeostasis within the context of the human body, including; blood glucose, temperature, and water

 • I can describe the role of receptors, the brain, the CNS, the pancreas, effectors, muscles, and glands in homeostasis

 • I can describe the parts of the endocrine system and how they work together

 • I can describe the importance of the pituitary gland

 • I can identify the locations of the pituitary gland; pancreas; thyroid; adrenal gland; ovary and testes

 • I can describe how blood glucose concentration is monitored

 • I can explain what happens when blood glucose is too high

 • I can describe how insulin controls blood glucose levels

 • I can describe the cause, symptoms and treatment for type 1 diabetes

 • I can describe the cause, symptoms and treatment for type 2 diabetes

 • I can explain the negative feedback loop that controls blood glucose levels

 • I can describe the excretory products of the lungs, the skin and the kidneys

 • I can describe how the kidneys work

 • I can describe the parts of the excretory system

 • I can label and describe the structures within the kidney.

 • I can describe ultrafiltration and the composition of the glomerular filtrate

 • I can describe how water is reabsorbed into the collecting duct of the nephron

 • I can describe why glucose is reabsorbed at the proximal convoluted tubule

 • I can explain the effect that ADH has on the kidneys and blood water concentration

 • I can state that urine contains urea, water and mineral salts

 • 2.93 describe the role of the skin in temperature regulation, with reference to sweating, vasoconstriction and vasodilation

 • I can describe how the body controls the internal temperature

 • I can refer to sweating, vasoconstriction and vasodilation when describing how the body controls the internal temperature

 • I can describe the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction

 • I can describe fertilisation as involving gamete fusion

 • I can describe the structure and functions of the male and female reproductive systems

 • I can describe the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle

 • I can describe the roles of FSH and LH in the menstrual cycle

 • I can describe how the placenta gives nutrition to the embryo

 • I can describe how the amniotic fluid protects an infant

 • I can describe the secondary sexual characteristics developed by oestrogen and testosterone