Edexcel C1.2 Materials From the Earth

Below are the specification statements from Edexcel, and just below the the videos to help your understanding and revision. The wording of the statements is important, this is what the exam board tell us you should know - so make sure you know it well!


‘Describe that igneous rocks, such as granite, are:

a - formed by the solidification of magma or lava

b - made of crystals whose size depends on the rate of cooling’ (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe chalk and limestone as examples of sedimentary rocks' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe how sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction of layers of sediment over a very long time period' (Pearson, 2013)


'Recall that sedimentary rocks:

a - may contain fossils

b - are susceptible to erosion' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe marble as an example of a metamorphic rock' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe the formation of metamorphic rocks by the action of heat and/or pressure, including the formation of marble from chalk or limestone' (Pearson, 2013)


'Recall that limestone, chalk and marble exist in the Earth’s crust and that they are all natural forms of calcium carbonate' (Pearson, 2013)


'Demonstrate an understanding of the balance between the demand for limestone and the economic, environmental and social effects of quarrying it' (Pearson, 2013)


'Demonstrate an understanding of the commercial need for quarrying calcium carbonate on a large scale, as a raw material, for the formation of glass, cement and concrete' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide' (Pearson, 2013)


'Investigate the ease of thermal decomposition of carbonates, including calcium carbonate, zinc carbonate and copper carbonate' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe the ease of thermal decomposition of different metal carbonates' (Pearson, 2013)


'Demonstrate an understanding that:

a - atoms are the smallest particles of an element that can take part in chemical reactions

b - during chemical reactions, atoms are neither created nor destroyed

c - during chemical reactions, atoms are rearranged to make new products with different properties from the reactants' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe the effect of water on calcium oxide' (Pearson, 2013)


'Describe how calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to form a solution, known as limewater' (Pearson, 2013)


'Demonstrate an understanding that the total mass before and after a reaction in a sealed container is unchanged, as shown practically by a precipitation reaction' (Pearson, 2013)


'Explain how calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate can be used to neutralise soil acidity' (Pearson, 2013)


'Explain how calcium carbonate can be used to remove acidic gases from coal-fired power station chimneys, reducing harmful emissions and helping to reduce acid rain' (Pearson, 2013)


Reference list

Edexcel, GCSE Specification Chemistry. 2013 http://filestore.aqa.org.uk/subjects/AQA-PHYS-W-SP-14.PDF date accessed 08.11.15